Bhutan Journal of Natural Resources and Development

College of Natural Resources

Assessment of Variability of Foxtail Millet [Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.] Genotypes

Kandel, Manoj .;  Gurung, Suk .B;  Dhami, Narayan .B;  Shrestha, Jiban .; 



Analysis of genetic diversity and variability is an initial step for crop development in a plant breeding program. Thirty foxtail millet genotypes were evaluated for their ten agro-morphological traits viz. grain yield, days to heading, days to maturity, plant height, leaf length, leaf width, number of nodes per tiller, panicle length, thousand-grain weight, and leaf blast during April to August season of 2018 at Kabre, Dolakha, Nepal. Clustering was done based on variability observed among the genotypes for all the ten traits by the average linkage method. The genotypes were grouped into six clusters. The shortest inter cluster distance between Cluster I and Cluster II was 17.63 and the longest was between Cluster IV and Cluster VI with 47.55. Cluster I had the maximum leaf blast score with the minimum leaf length. The Cluster II had the maximum grain yield and days to 50% heading and the number of nodes per tiller. The Cluster III was characterized by the maximum leaf length and leaf blast value. The genotypes grouped into the Cluster IV were characterized by the lowest value of days to 50% heading and 80% days to maturity and those of Cluster V had the maximum thousand-grain weight. The genotypes categorized into Cluster VI had the maximum plant height, leaf length, and panicle length. Cluster II and Cluster V were good because of their agro-morphological traits. The presence of a high level of diversity among the genotypes indicated their suitability for selection in crop breeding programs. Correlation analysis of genotypes having the maximum panicle length leaf area and higher plant height and shorter maturity period are pre-requisite for improvement in grain yield.


Cluster analysis, diversity, Foxtail millet, grain yield

Full Text



Amgai, R.B., Pantha, S., Chhetri, T.B., Budhathoki, S.K., Khatiwada, S.P. and Mudwari, A. (2011). Variation on agro-morphological traits in Nepalese foxtail millet (Setaria italic (L) Beauv). Agronomy Journal of Nepal, 2:133-138. DOI:

Babu, D.R. (2019). Genetic divergence studies in foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.]. Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding, 10(1): 18-29.

Bala Ravi, S. (2004). Neglected millets that save the poor from starvation. LEISA, India, 6(1): 34–36.

Brunda, S.M., Kamatar, M.Y., Naveenkumar, K.L. and Hundekar, R. (2014). Study of Genetic Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance in Foxtail Millet in both Rainy and Post Rainy Season. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, 7(11): 2319-2372.

Dai, H.P., Jia, G.L., Lu, C., Wei, A.Z., Feng, B.L. and Zhang, S.Q. (2011a). Studies of synergism between root system and leaves senescence in Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.). Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 9(2): 177-180.

Dai, H.P., Zhang, P.P.,  Lu, C., Jia, G.L., Song, H., Ren, X.M., Chen, J., Wei, A.Z., Feng, B.L. and Zhang, S.Q. (2011b). Leaf senescence and reactive oxygen species metabolism of broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) under drought condition. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 5(12): 1655-1660.

Fedorov, A. (1974). Chromosome numbers of flowering plants. Koenigstein, Fed. Rep. Germany, Otto Koeltz Science Publishers.

Gangurdei, S.S., Moharili, M.P., Jadhavi, P.V., Wandharei, M.S., Gawaii, D., Dikshiti, N.,  Suprasanna, P. and Dani, R.G. (2016). Genetic divergence studies in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.). Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding, 7(3): 514-519.

HCRP. (2018). Annual report, Hill Crops Research Program (HCRP), Kabre, Dolakha, Nepal.

HCRP. (2019). Annual report, Hill Crops Research Program (HCRP), Kabre, Dolakha, Nepal.

IBPGR. (1985). Descriptors for Setaria italica and S. pumila. Rome, Italy: IBPGR Secretariat.

Jali, M., Kamatar, M., Jali, S., Hiremath, M. and Naik, R. (2012). Efficacy of value added foxtail millet therapeutic food in the management of diabetes and dyslipidamea in type 2 diabetic patients. Recent Research in Science and Technology, 4(7): 03-04.

Kamatar, M.Y., Meghana, D.R., Goudar, G., Brunda, S.M. and Naik, R. (2014). Healthy millet food products for quality public health, National Workshop on Emerging Technology in Processing and Value addition of millets for better utilization. March 13-14, 2014, Pp. 77-78. Agriculture College and Research Institute, TNAU, Madhurai-641003.

Kandel, M. and Shrestha, J. (2019). Genotype x environment interaction and stability for grain yield and yield attributing traits of buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Geartn). Syrian Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(3): 466-476.

Kandel, M., Dhami, N. B. and Shrestha, J. (2019). Phenotypic diversity of finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) genotypes. Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3(2): 20-26.

Kandel, M., Dhami, N.B., Bastola, A., Sudedi, N.R. and Shrestha, J. (2019). Field evaluation and nutritional benefits of finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.). International Journal of Global Science Research, 6(1): 711-722.

Kandel, M., Ghimire, S. K., Ojha, B. R. and Shrestha, J. (2017). Analysis of genetic diversity among the maize inbred lines (Zea mays L.) under heat stress condition. Journal of Maize Research and Development, 3(1): 86-97.

Khaliq, I., Irshad, A. and Arshad, M. (2008). Awn and flag leaf contribution towards grains yield in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Cereal Research Communications, 36(1): 65-76. DOI:

Khan, H., Marwat, K.B., Khan, M.A. and Hashim, S. (2014). Herbicidal control of parthenium weed in maize. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 46(2): 497-504.

Li, Y., Wu, S., Cao, Y. and Zhang, X. (1996). A phenotypic diversity analysis of foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) land races of Chinese origin. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 43(4): 377-384.

Lu, H., Zhang, J., Liu, K.B., Wu, N., Li, Y., Zhou, K., Ye, M., Zhang, T., Zhang, H. and Yang, X. (2009). Earliest domestication of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) in East Asia extended to 10,000 years ago. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(18): 7367-7372. DOI:

Marathee, J.P. (1993). Structure and characteristics of the world millet economy. Pages 159–178 in Advances in small millets (Riley K.W., Gupta S.C., Seetharam A. Mushonga J.N. eds.). 66 Janapath, New Delhi, India: Oxford and IBH Publ. Co. Pvt.

MoAD. (2016). Statistical Information on Nepalese Agriculture, Index of major agriculture production. Government of Nepal, Ministry of Agricultural Development (MoAD), Kathmandu, Nepal.

Nakayama, H., Namai, H. and Okuno, K. (1999). Geographical distribution of the alleles at the two prolamin loci, Pro 1 and Pro 2, in foxtail millet, Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv. Genes and Genetic Systems, 74: 293–297. DOI: 10.1266/ggs.74.293

NARC. (2018). Annual Report (2017/18) of Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC), Hill Crops Research Program. Kabre, Dolakha, Nepal.

Prasad, P.V.V. and Staggenborg, S.A. (2008). Impacts of Drought and/or Heat Stress on Physiological, Developmental, Growth, and Yield Processes of Crop Plants. Response of crops to limited water: Understanding and modeling water stress effects on plant growth processes. Advances in Agricultural Systems Modeling Series 1, pp.301-355.

Reddy, V.G., Upadhyaya, H.G. and Gowda, C.L.L. (2006). Characterization of world’s foxtail millet accession collections for morphological traits. Journal of SAT Agricultural Research, 2: 1–3

Sapkota, M., Pandey, M. P. and Thapa, D. B. (2016). Agro-morphological characterization of foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. Beauv) at Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal. International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, 4(3): 298-307.

Smith, J.S.C. and Smith, O.S. (1989).The description and assessment of distance between inbred lines of maize. 2: The utility of morphological-biochemical-and genetic descriptors and a scheme for the testing of distinctiveness between inbred lines. Maydica, 34: 141-150.

Steel, R.G.D. and Torrie, J.H. (1980). Principles and procedures of statistics, a biochemical approach. McGraw Hill, Inc. New York.